OKUNO actively presents its new technologies through two types of magazines: TOP TECHNO FOCUS (for metal finishing, surface finishing and inorganic materials) and TOP FOOD TECHNO FOCUS (for food).
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We can’t mass produce metal microcoils by machine work. By utilizing the helical structure of spirulina algae as a high-function filler, we have developed biotemplate technology, and have succeeded the mass-production of the coils by electroless plating. These microcoils are quite efficient for millimeter and terahertz wave adsorption, and considered as one of the materials to establish the social infrastructure in the next generation (the fifth and sixth mobile communications). In this report, we introduce the development of the manufacturing processes such as the dispersion and the composition into various kinds of solutes, and the evaluation results about radio-wave adsorption performance.
Conventionally, electroless plating is conducted by making palladium nuclei adsorbed on copper from displacement reaction. However, it is concerned to occur corrosion by excessive copper dissolution and to reduce the coatability of plating films by non-uniform palladium nuclei. To solve these problems, we have developed a new catalyzing solution, ICP ACCERA COA to use cobalt catalysts instead of palladium on copper by reducing reaction. This report shows the features of ICP ACCERA COA and the advantages of the deposits from the product.
Trivalent chromium plating from concentrated salt solutions indicates excellent current efficiency because hydrogen generation is suppressed due to the reduction of free water in the solution. Furthermore, the solution contains highly active chloride ions, so the use of organic complexing agents become unnecessary; consequently, high-purity hard chromium plating that shows same film properties from hexavalent-chromium based plating solutions can be obtained.
In this report, we describe trivalent chromium plating solution, "TOP HARD CHROME HCA" and "TOP HARD CHROME HLC" using the concentrated aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and lithium chloride as solvents.
It is well known that lotus leaves are water-repellent. This property results from the minute protruding structure in several micrometers of the leaves. In recent years, many researchers have focuses on the structure to achieve super water-repellency for dirt resistance, self-cleaning or anti-bacterial effect and other functionalities.
Conventionally, water-repellency treatments on aluminum require many steps and have a problem of manufacturing cost. This paper explains "TOP ALZEEK PROCESS," which is a simple process only by dipping to form an uneven structure for super-hydrophobic properties.
In the latest IC substrates. the sizes of copper patterns and via-holes becomes smaller and smaller. For fine patterning, it is required to reduce the thickness of electroless copper plating that works as a seed layer, and to ensure sufficient electric conductivity at the bottom of via-holes with small connection areas.
OKUNO has newly developed an electroless copper plating process, OPC FLET PROCESS. OPC FLET PROCESS enables to form copper seed layers with high covering performance and great electric conductivity by small thickness. Also, high connection reliability can come available at the bottom of via-holes.
Acidic baths for Zn-Ni alloy plating are superior to conventional alkaline zincate baths in terms of deposition rate, current efficiency and the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. We have focused on the acidic chloride baths and developed Zn-Ni-SiO2 composite plating bath, NICOZINC ACS by adding SiO2 nanoparticles into a chloride-based Zn-Ni alloy plating bath in order to obtain high corrosion resistance and hydrogen embrittlement resistance with small thickness. In this paper, we report on the plating film properties of NICOZINC ACS as a new anti-corrosion treatment technology.
Recently, high thermal resistance has been demanded for power devices. Electroless Ni-P plating films are widely used for power devices as UBM（Under Bump Metallurgy, Under Barrier Metal）. In this field, the electroless Ni-P plating films that will not cause fractures or embrittlement are strongly demanded for jointing and long-time use at a high temperature. In this report, we would like to introduce TOP UBP NICORON MLP, especially developed for power module, to realize high crack resistance and excellent solder joint performance.
Electronics industries have undergone an astounding evolution. 2.1D packages, PLP (Panel Level Packaging) and other new packages have been studied and examined for further miniaturization and higher performance to realize 1/1μm Line/Space. Besides, we’re developing new technologies to plate into micro-via holes and on low-roughness substrate to satisfy these new requirements. This paper describes our latest developments how we can solve the issues with a new electroless copper plating solution and can realize 1/1μm Line/Space world.
Aluminum is widely used for many purposes because it is light and can be processed easily. The metal is electrochemically classified into base metal, so aluminum oxide films are formed on it by anodizing to obtain a rust-preventing effect. However, many industries such as a car market has highlighted the rust preventing effect, so new technology beyond the conventional methods are eagerly expected. This paper describes the newest research about anti-rust coating from silica-based solution (Protector series).
6th laboratory of Advanced R&D laboratories is established to innovate basic and advanced technology about surface treatments. Our team is always pursuing Needs and Seeds at the same time, and developing future technology to create epoch-making products. Even if we don’t have many experiences in certain fields, we’re positively entering into different fields by utilizing academic-industrial cooperation. This paper deal with three topics from our latest research regarding anti-rust, non-aqueous, eco-friendly technologies.
Aluminum alloys are widely adopted for automotive parts for weight reduction. Especially, high corrosion resistance, superior hardness and high fatigue-resistance is strongly expected for the electroless Ni-P plating that are used in engine parts. The purpose of this paper is to report on a new electroless plating solution that can realize high corrosion- and fatigue-resistance. Besides, we report about an electroless Ni-P/PTFE composite plating solution -TOP NICOSITE LPFE-, which is excellent in hardness and sliding performance.
Chromic acid is harmful to the environment and human, and palladium price is still high on the market. We have a problem that chromium and palladium must be used to plate on plastic. Besides, a short process is preferred for the plating in terms of productivity and line maintenance. This paper describes the next generation plating technology for plating on plastic not using chromium and palladium, which can reduce the number of steps significantly at the same time.
Regarding plating on plastics, the etching process without hexavalent chromium and the electroplating process with high corrosion resistance is the eternal issue of people. In this article, we introduce our latest research about the alternative technology to the etching process by hexavalent chromium; besides, we explain our achievement that can industrially realize hexavalent-chromium free etching process by using acidic permanganates. Also, we introduce our newest development about the electrolytic nickel-tin alloy plating and trivalent-chromium plating process with high corrosion resistance that can be used as the substitution for conventional multi-layer nickel plating methods.
Nowadays, the size and the weight of metallic parts are reduced; consequently, coating or plating by conventional treatment technology can’t often show antirust effect sufficiently.Therefore, we have researched silica-based solutions for thin coating that are used for antirust treatment.In this article, we introduce our latest coating solutions by the use of the sol-gel process (Protector series), and explain how to realize high corrosion resistance by the new products.
Regarding electroless nickel-phosphorus alloy plating, the solutions containing 5 to 6 g of nickel per liter are widely used at a temperature from 80 to 90℃.Nowadays, people pay attention to environmental issues; consequently, every company need to satisfy environmental requirements when they develop new products.In this article, we introduce two of electroless nickel-phosphorus alloy plating products from our latest research. The first one is TOP NICORON EC-LF that can be used by 3 g of nickel concentration. The second one is TOP NICORON MSH-LF that can be used at a bath temperature of 70℃.
Nowadays, palladium is widely used as the catalysts for electroless copper plating to printed wiring boards. If SAP (Semi Additive Process) is conducted to the boards, palladium may remain between fine circuits, then the palladium residues may decrease insulation reliability. Besides, if fine patterning technology is made progressed, the conventional thickness of electroless nickel plating films may cause problems in final surface treatments.According to the background above, we have developed the ultra-micro pattern forming process (TOP UFP PROCESS) that can realize line and space, 2 and 2 μm.In this article, we explain about the mechanism of nano-silver catalysts for electroless copper plating, also give a detailed explanation about electroless palladium and electroless gold plating steps in TOP UFP PROCESS.
Printed wiring boards for cars have been produced by subtractive process; however, the process is recently replaced by MSAP (Modified Semi Additive Process).If MSAP is introduced, micro-patterning technology will move forward even more. For the advanced stage, we need to develop acid copper plating additives that have higher selectivity toward micro-patterns.According to the background above, we have developed the special additive for MSAP (TOP LUCINA VT) that is very excellent in fine patterning, via-filling performances and the uniformity in thickness.
ABS resin has been the most widely used among plastic materials for many purposes, therefore, the technology to plate onto ABS resin has been established, and industrialized at plating factories.In the present industry, the technology always involves the etching step by the aqueous mixture solutions of chromic acid and sulfuric acid. Because butadiene in ABS resin is oxidized and solved by chromium etching treatment, then micro pores are formed on the surfaces of ABS resin, sufficient adhesion power becomes available (“anchor effect”).But, hexavalent chromium in chromium etching solutions is a carcinogenic substance, harmful to health, injurious to working people in plating lines. Also, hexavalent chromium may cause serious environmental problems regarding wastewater treatment. Furthermore, because of strict regulations and rules, wastewater treatment will demand huge expense and heavy burden if wastewater contains hexavalent chromium.As the alternative candidate, the etching solutions from permanganic acid exit; nevertheless, permanganic acid type etching solutions have the weakness in terms of bath stability, and bath life until now. This time, we’ve successfully developed TOP ZECROM where we have applied the acid aqueous solution comprising permanganic acid. Besides, we have improved the bath stability and bath life by TOP ZECROM process. Mainly, this report shows the comparisons of conventional hexavalent chromium, and TOP ZECROM processes, also explains the advantages of TOP ZECROM process.
Palladium is widely used as the catalyst for electroless copper plating processes onto printed wiring boards because palladium has a high catalytic activity. But palladium price is expensive and rising. Besides, if palladium catalyst residues remain among micro-patterns in final surface treatments, it will damage patterning selectivity, and insulating performances.Considering resent keen cost competitions, and the strong demand for high-density mounting technology due to device miniaturization, palladium catalyst methods may cause serious problems.Based on the said situations, we have investigated silver catalyst method for electroless copper plating process. This time, NACE PROCESS (Nano Ag Catalyst Electroless copper plating process), the special process from pre-treatment to electroless copper plating steps, has been successfully developed by us. For the silver catalyst method, we have employed the nanoscale silver particles dispersed by polymer protecting agents, which are supplied by DIC Corporation.This reports introduce the advantages of the silver catalyst method by comparing with conventional palladium catalyst methods. The new method will improve covering power, connecting reliability, adhesion, and insulation reliability among patterns that are key factors to plating onto printed wiring boards. Not just the cost advantage from metal price differences, NACE PROCESS can omit the process to remove catalyst residues, and the time to maintain stainless steel jigs, so it will become a high-value-added way.We believe that this new find will contribute for better quality, and advanced micro-patterning technology in next generation.
Nickel has been widely used for surface treatments, however, it is pointed out that some people are allergic to nickel. If speculum alloy (Cu-Sn alloy, 40mass%-Cu) is alternatively used, the color tone will be similar to nickel plating films. So, the speculum alloy is expected as the substitute for nickel.In the past, cyanides were used for Cu-Sn plating solutions. At present, in order to lower the burden on the environment, the plating solutions from copper pyrophosphate have been developed and put to practical use. But, with the plating solutions from copper pyrophosphate, cracking will easily occur, also thicker plating can’t be realized.Therefore, we have decided to develop acid Cu-Sn plating solutions without cyanides; consequently, CUSTALLOY CNF, based on sulfuric acid, has been successfully completed. This report shows the film specifications and the reaction mechanism on CUSTALLOY CNF.Because complex agents and reducing agents are added, CUSTALLOY CNF can realize Cu-Sn alloy films that indicate 40mass%-Cu. The speculum alloy consists of two kinds of metal compound phase, i.e. Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5. The Cu-Sn alloy films indicate tensile stress, and cracking will not occur easily, for these reasons, thicker plating over 10 µm can be realized. We have evaluated the metal dissolution amount from CUSTALLOY CNF films by the artificial perspiration test, and we have discovered that the metal dissolution amount from CUSTALLOY CNF films has been less than that from nickel plating films.The results from the electrochemical measurements indicates that Cu exists as Cu(I) metal complex in the solution of CUSTALLOY CNF, also, the plating reaction of Sn induces Cu deposition. And it will result from the combination of complex agents and reducing agents.Accordingly, CUSTALLOY CNF can deposit one and a half times faster than conventional cyanide- and copper pyrophosphate-bathes.
Printed electroless has attracted people’s attention as next generation technology. Printed electronics is the method of patterning circuits with conductive inks, screen printing, and/or ink jet printers. Silver and silver alloy materials are relatively used for patterning, but silver or silver alloy materials have problems in terms of electro-conductivity and migrations. Electroless copper plating on silver and silver alloy materials can work to effectively reduce the problems. For printed electronics, great selective patterning and high-speed plating are important factors. Great selective patterning can inhibit the deposition out of circuits that may cause a short circuit. High-speed plating can increase working efficiency. Also, for the application on film materials, fine physical properties that tolerate to circuit bending is indispensable for electroless copper plating.Taking into account the latest trends, we have developed OIC PROCESS as the electroless copper plating process exclusive for isolated circuit board patterns. In this process, the solutions for pre-treatment steps are almost neutral. OIC PROCESS can be applied even if the materials are in poor chemical resistance. In this report, we’re delighted to introduce; “OIC COPPER” for great selective patterning, “OPC COPPER NCA” for high-speed plating, “OPC COPPER HFS” for obtaining fine physical properties on film materials, and “OPC COPPER AF” as the product without formaldehyde. We’ll explain the features of each product. With these products, the materials, which is considered difficult for plating, can be finely treated by our advanced technology.
We have developed trivalent hard-chromium electroplating (thicker plating), which can display high speed plating ability for industrial use in lines. We would like to explain about our latest product, “TOP FINECHROME SP” in this report. In our trial, we have investigated film compositions in each case in order to determine the impacts by plating conditions. Our trial data shows deposition speed increases in proportion to current density. At 20 A/dm2 current density, we can mark approx. 40 µm plating speed per an hour. In a Vickers hardness test, stable hardness values have been obtained even if the conditions ? such as anode rotation rate, current density, or bath pH- are changed. Besides, it is confirmed by XPS analysis that plated films contain carbon of 6.0 at%. On fracture toughness investigations, we found that plating conditions may highly affect. On bath temperature, it is found that high temperature can lower oxygen ratio in films. From this feature, TOP FINECHROME SP can display the fracture toughness almost equal to that from a hexavalent bath.
As one of methods to produce black films, the method with an electroless nickel plating, --applying an electroless plating on the surfaces of substrates, and then dipping the substrates into solutions for chemical conversion treatment--, has been spread industrially.With the said method, we can obtain various colors from a brown to a black colors. According to required specifications, many products are sold on the market.These days, the demand for eco-friend products has been highly emphasized, and our OKUNO are challenging to launch the products with no use of environmentally-hazardous substances.With this report, we’re glad to introduce our “NICOBLACK MT-LF” that doesn’t include lead compounds, being free from environmentally-hazardous substances.Besides, the product will provide real jet-black colors, a coal-darkness for your lines.
The plated films with hexavalent chromium show a peculiar and shiny appearance in a pale tone. Moreover, it is excellent in corrosion-resistance along with great hardness, so this technology has been industrially applied for multiple purposes. Regarding bath compositions of hexavalent chromium plating, in general, Sargent bath, which is made of chromic acid and sulfuric acid, is widely used in varied fields due to its simple composition and cheapness of raw materials. Besides, this Sargent bath is known for easy bath controlling in plating lines.However, this bath contains high concentration of chromic acid, and it arises many mists with toxicity due to poor current efficiency through a plating process. This toxic gas may cause cancers in the human body. Generally, to avoid these hazardous mists, additives against mists are considered to be effective to prevent carcinogenic mists from spreading into the air. If we want to use some additives to be put into chromic acid bathes, chemicals for mist-prevention should contain refractory substances like fluoric compounds to obtain the stability and chemical resistance in chromic acid bathes. Recently, such refractory is also restricted by the regulations against PFOS.Reflecting these trends, plating methods by trivalent chromium bath are highly marked in the industry these days, however, they still have some concerns to be practically applied instead of conventional chromium plating.In this article, we’re delighted to report about the latest research by OKUNO about trivalent chromium technology with a black color, designed for decorative purposes.
PTFE indicates the great lubricity. If PTFE particles are dispersed into nickel plating films, sliding property and water-repellent performance are greatly improved. In general, the application of this technology is practicable by electroless nickel plating solutions with PTFE particles.However, such nickel solutions has disadvantages like a short bath life, or a slow speed of plating. To achieve at a breakthrough for these current concern, we have developed the latest product which can be used by electrolysis plating.
Decorative plating methods on plastics are widely applied in diverse industries, e.g. for auto-parts, faucets or entertainment-equipment, because it allows this light material to obtain metallic appearances. Moreover, plating on plastics can bring further flexibility for designing along with the improved productivity. Especially, ABS resin, which is the co-polymer of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene, indicates the great performances in cost and workability. Beside, ABS resin is quite suitable for plating as recognized as the most practicable material for multiple purposes among many resin. Plating on plastics was commercialized in 1960s, and at that era, electroless plating was widely applied for giving conductivity to material surfaces. However, general chemicals for electroless plating compose hazardous materials like formalin, EDTA, or hypophosphite. Along with the increase of our consciousness about the environment, OKUNO have succeeded in developments of CRP PROCESS, or the process free from above-mentioned toxic substances. CRP PROCESS is the process with direct electrolytic plating on resins by giving conductivity to materials. This conducting process follows the step of catalyzing on material-surfaces. The chemical for conducting can be used semi-permanently. Moreover, general processes by electroless plating methods usually require a long line, however, with our CRP PROCESS, the amount of total processes can be considerably reduced. Our CRP PROCESS has been adopted at many factories of our customers as it also shows positive results to lower fraction defective by eliminating problems caused by electroless plating. By the way, comparing a conventional plating process with electroless plating method, our CRP PROCESS requires higher concentration of palladium in a catalyst bath. Taking account of strong palladium price on the market, it’s essential chemical, but also we try to find the best conditions by harmonizing from first to last as a whole process. Finally, we can achieve at the latest process of CRP PROCESS NEX. In this report, we’re glad to announce performance and features of this latest product in detail.
Through-hole plating and via-filling plating have been widely applied in PCB industry.Recently, along with the filling ability, the improvement of productivity is highly demanded at customers. To increase the productivity, it is the most effective to reduce plating time so the existing additives are needed to be reformed for the application at higher current density. On the market, the product for this purpose has been expected for a long time.In this time, we’re glad to introduce two advanced additives in the next generation, which satisfy this requirement. We launch two additives: the first one, “TOP LUCINA HV” for via-filling, and next-one, “TOP LUCINA HT” for through-hole plating.
Coating technology, which are performed by coating on material-surfaces, easily gives excellent characters for functional purposes. According to requirements for coating films, functional results, e.g. chemical-resistance, physical resistance, electric or catalyzing abilities, are easily obtained through coating processes, and the thickness of coating films are decided by taking into consideration of practical usages. Besides, regarding raw materials of coating, inorganic materials indicates better performances than organic materials, and inorganic materials are especially excellent in abrasion-resistance, heat-resistance and weather-resistance. Especially, coating films by silica(SiO2) are widely applied in varied fields because it shows great hardness, high-durability and great transparency. So it is generally used for raw materials of a hard coat and protective films.Regarding another application of inorganic films, the films from titanium oxide are also in a practical use because it has special abilities like high refractive index and photo-catalyst, which are not be able to be realized with organic films.We have developed the products derived from silica and titanium oxide for coating materials in a wet process. In this report, we announce various functional abilities from results of our development.
To seal dyed parts, nickel acetate sealing is widely applied in anodizing process for a long time. However, pores in anodized film are sealed with nickel, so it may occur metal allergy to human bodies to some extent.
It's the reason why nickel-free sealing is a hot topic in the industry.。
In this paper, comparing with a conventional nickel acetate sealing, we introduce "TOP SEAL NIF". We also demonstrate great features, mechanisms and remarkable performances of this latest product.
Regarding electroless nickel plating solutions, plated products with P content 9-11% is gradually applied for various purposes in the industry due to its excellent abilities for corrosion resistance. The demanded performances like speeding up, more shiny appearances, less film-stress and improved covering ability should be highly essential in the market.
Reflecting these latest trends, we present our study about up-dated product, "TOP NICORON SA-98-LFG", which is developed for middle and high phosphate content with no use of lead. We're positive that it will satisfy your severe requirements for better brilliance than conventional chemicals or reduced film-stress and also it can be applied for your lines to aluminum substrates more easily.
In this report, we describe its great features and also show the effectiveness of "TOP NICORON WETTING AGENT C" to prevent rough depositions or pitting and enhance the corrosion resistance.
CRP PROCESS can realize direct acid copper plating on plastic, which has been widely applied at many customers after launching the market. Comparing with a conventional chemical plating process, CRP PROCESS helps you to reduce troubles for waste water as eco-friendly plating method. Furthermore, we're proud that it'll cut operation costs by its simple process as many defects by plating is considered to happen during chemical plating process.
On the other hand, in our research, we have seriously developed CATALYST to reduce Pd concentration. In spite of its great advantages, current CRP PROCESS requires higher Pd concentration of catalyst comparing with a conventional method by chemical plating. Also considering soaking Pd price in these years, it's needed to immediately break through this matter. In our continuous research, finally we achieve the latest product, "CRP-DC PROCESS." Based on many advantages of original CRP PROCESS, we reach at our target for low concentrated Pd catalyst, which is practicable in direct acid copper process on plastics.
In this treatise, we introduce remarkable features of "CRP-DC PROCESS."
Low-melting point glass is used for sintering aids” bonding agent “of conductive paste or LTCC boards etc. In the low-melting point glass, lead-free glass is mainly employed by environmental regulation of RoHS Directive etc. Therefore, we have developed various lead-free glasses by classifying them into bismuth, zinc and silica types for difference of frameworks. And, Ni/Au plating is often performed in order to get excellent solder bonding ability and excellent gold wire bonding ability on electrodes formed by silver paste to which low-melting point glass of lead-free was added as sintering aids. Plating-resistance of the silver electrodes is required.
In this paper, we describe results that investigated elution composition and elution volume from low-melting point glass of lead-free that is sintering aids, state of silver film and plating resistance.
Light Emitting Diode, namely” LED “has great advantages, for example, long life, high luminous efficiency, conservation and more. It’s the reason that LED attracts rising attentions as light sources in the future. Silver plating is excellent in light reflectivity. So it’s widely applied to reflectors for LED elemental devices. However, silver is naturally tarnished with ease. The lower reflectivity after a long-term use is a great apprehension in the industry.
In our research, we find that the debasement in reflectivity ascribes to the” internal “and “external “factors: the former means copper diffusion from copper-alloy materials and the latter indicates the sulfuration of silver film.
We’ve developed” TOP MRS PROCESS “, which can wonderfully maintain the light reflectivity for LED reflectors for a long time. It’s composed of two processes, firstly” TOP MRS-PD “as palladium plating to prevent copper-diffusion, then” TOP MRS-ZN “as zinc oxide film on bright silver plating for anti-sulfuration.
In recent years, decrease and restriction of use of environmental load substance have been promoted by legal regulation such as WEEE, RoHS directive or REACH.
As for electroless copper plating process, formaldehyde is widely used as a reducing agent because it is low cost and accessible. Formaldehyde is recognized as a carcinogen in recent years because of low vaper pressure and strong stimulation even if it is low concentration. It may become subject of regulation in future because adverse effect to environment or human body is large.
On this background, we have worked on the development of electroless copper plating solution without formaldehyde. As a result, we have developed electroless copper plating process, “ OPC COPPER AF “which uses sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent.
We have developed high speed tri-valent chromium plating process, "TOP FINE CHROME SP", aimed at substitution of conventional industrial chromium plating. Though TOP FINE CHROM SP is sulfuric acid bath type without chlorine ion, it provides approx. 30μm/hr. of deposition rate and 16.5 % of high current efficiency same as hexa-valent chromium plating. The hardness of the plating film of it as deposited, is also same as hexa-valent chromium plating and the film constitution is changed, its hardness increases up to Hv = 1580 by heat treatment. The abrasion-resistance is also just about equivalent to hexa-valent chromium plating, moreover, the film after heat treatment is better than its of hexa-valent chromium plating.
On the other hand, we have developed tri-valent chromium plating solution for barrel plating, "TOP FINE CHROME BR", though it is difficult to develop barrel plating process of conventional hexa¬valent chromium plating. Article barrel-plated by "TOP FINE CHROME BR"shows uniform thickness and similar white bright appearance of hexa-valent chromium plating film.
There are some copper plating processes which are put to practical use, such as cyanide copper plating bath, copper pyrophosphate plating bath, acid copper plating bath and others. Cyanide copper plating process is only one which provides copper plating film having good adhesion to iron, its alloys, zinc alloys and magnesium alloys. However, cyanide copper plating bath contains a large amount of toxic cyanide compounds in it and this is a problem about labor health and environment.
As the solution of this problem, the strike copper plating process,"TOP SOFT COPPER" has developed which does not contain toxic cyanide compounds and provides excellent adhesion to iron, zinc alloys and magnesium alloys. We hereby introduce advantages of "TOP SOFT COPPER", especially its low substitution reactivity and excellent adhesion.
Porous metals have been expected as countermeasures for environment and energy owing to their utility value as functional materials of high-specific surface area and excellent retention ability of materials. Though, there are many manufacturing methods of porous metals, all of them require special facility, and form of porous metals obtained is limited.
We studied forming condition of porous film by simple wet plating process, so that we succeeded to find that porous film having approx. 1μm diameter pores is obtained by watts' bath or copper pyrophosphate plating process. We hereby report influence of factors on formation of porous film obtained by watts' bath or copper pyrophosphate plating process.
Via-filling plating is commonly-used for build-up wiring boards. This via-filling plating technology has already become widely used these latter days, and its higher productivity is required furthermore hereafter.
The standard current density of our conventional additives which is used for plating for via-filling applying to through-hole, is 1.0A/dm2, it provides good performance under this condition. However, the performance ability reduces at high current density (1.5A/ dm2 or more), and it is difficult to keep the performance and meet the needs of improving productivity at the same time.
Under this situation, we have developed "TOP LUCINA HV" as additives for plating for via-filling applying to through-hole at high current density area. We hereby introduce the background of the development and performance of "TOP LUCINA HV"
CCL materials as the material of flexible printed wiring boards will be demanded furthermore hereafter. One of the manufacturing methods of them, metalizing method which forms metal thin film on polyimide film directly, is focused on as the optimal materials for making fine pitch, since it is possible to apply to semi-additive method. Though the thin film forming method by sputtering method was established, it has a problem of high initial cost because this method needs a large-scale vacuum equipment. On the other hand, plating process of wet type has still been focused because of its low cost.
We have developed and introduced our "SLP PROCESS" as the forming nickel layer of thin film on polyimide film by plating process of wet type last year. Using new developed electroless nickel plating chemical "SLP-620 NICKEL" reduces the removing time of seed layer significantly and improves pattern forming ability markedly. This is a promising process which is applicable various films because it provides high adhesion strength for both CAPTON which is prevailing as CCL materials and POMIRAN to be silica hybrid materials. We hereby report the study about pattern forming by semi-additive method using nickel seed layer made by newly developed bath.
We have developed materials which forms transparent electrode pattern by printing and burning only, so that commercialized screen printing type ITO (Indium-Tin Oxide) nanoperticle paste "NANO DISPER ITO". However, owing to indium of its main component is rare resource which is worried about the depletion, and the substitution resource of transparent conductive film is aspired.
The transmittance of tin oxide (SnO2) which is one of the substitution resources in optical wavelength area is almost equal to ITO, and shows high reflection in far infrared ray area. In addition, it excels at the point of mechanical strength, thermal and chemical stabilities. On the other hand, it is inferior to ITO at the point of conductive and etching abilities. However, since tin oxide is abundant as the natural resource, it is possible to supply to the market at the low cost compared with ITO transparent conductive film.
We hereby mention the formation and properties of transparent conductive film formed by screen printing method of SnO2 type nanoparticle paste after synthesized SnO2 nanoparticle by pyrolysis reaction of tin complex as precursor, and at the same time newly-synthesized ATO(Antimony-Tin Oxide) nanoparticle by adding antimonid.
Magnesium, which is the lightest one in all practical metals, is expected applying various sectors industrially such as electric home appliances, parts of automobile and others. However, it is absolutely necessary to apply electroplating which improves corrosion resistance, because magnesium is chemically-active and easy to corrode away.
This time, we have developed the brand new process which is environmental friendly plating process, combines chromium-free etching and cyanide-free copper-strike plating. It can provide excellent plating film for adhesion and corrosion resistance. We hereby describe advantages and constitution of each treatment process, and introduce its excellent adhesion and corrosion resistance.
The corrosion resistance of electroless nickel plating tends to depend on the surface condition of substrate, and generally thicker plating thickness will provide higher corrosion resistance.
"TOP NICORON RCH-LH" which has been developed this time shows good corrosion resistance to be compared with the conventional similar bath by corrosion resistance test such as neutral salt spray test. Its high corrosion resistance will be expected in thin plating thickness.
We hereby report the test results of corrosion resistance, and introduce the speculation upon its mechanism and other excellent properties.
We have developed decorative tri-valent chromium plating process "TOP FINE CHROME", aimed at improvement of color tone which is difficult problem of tri-valent chromium plating. The reflectance of film provided by TOP FINE CHROME are improved remarkably to be compared with its of conventional tri-valent chromium plating, and the color tone is similar to its of hexa-valent chromium plating.
On the other hand, we have succeeded in the development of hexa-valent chromium-free rust preventing agent which makes improve corrosion resistance. After verifying the effects of rust preventing for dipping rust preventing agent "TOP TRI PASSIVE" and for electrolytic rust preventing agent "TOP ELEUP" by salt spray test and CASS test, we achieved the effect of it same as dipping rust preventing treatment by chromic acid solution (Cr=10g/L) as hexa-valent chromium.
Composite oxide type pigment is solid solution which consists of two or more kinds of metal oxide. It is used for various categories such as ceramic industry, paints, resins, glass paste and others, because of its excellent durability. Most conventional black inorganic pigments are containing chromium oxide (Cr2O3) for improvement of heat resistance and acid resistance, and adjusting color tone. It has been used as one of the essential raw materials for the component of black inorganic pigment. However, a part of tri-valent chromium will change into hexa-valent chromium by heat treatment and others. Though we eliminate hexa-valent chromium in the manufacturing process of pigment by water rinse and other treatments, we cannot deny the possibility for change of the chromium from tri-valent to hexa-valent. Therefore we have developed manganese oxide-based chromium-free black inorganic pigment.
We hereby introduce the advantages of this product as the glass paste for automobile window glass mainly. At the same time we introduce some applications to various glass paste for industry such as microwave panel and others, and for the second overcoating for chip resistor and others.
The PR pulse electrolyses are periodically current inversion method. It is said that this method can provide high throwing power, because the corner part plating of through-hole at high current density area is fused, and inside plating of through-hole at low current density area is difficult to be fused.
However, PR pulse electrical source is not much familiar at present because it is expensive compare with DC power supply, judgment of electrolytic condition is difficult and plating appearance and film property will be lowered by the strong reverse condition (i.e. current and time).
Then, we have developed TOP LUCNA PPR with maintaining excellent capability got from PR pulse electrolyses and solving the problem described above. We hereby introduce the effect and mechanism of behavior of TOP LUCINA PPR.
Materials of flexible printed wiring boards "CCL" became mainly spattered accompany with advancing of fine pitch tendency. Owing to spattered materials are metallized directly without adhesive layer, the constitution can take advantage of heat resistance which is the feature of polyimide film maximumly. However, it needs the large scale vacuum fixture and a lot of cost moreover nonproductive. From these reason, the metallizing by wet type has attracted attention. Arakawa Chemical Industries, Ltd. and we have undertaken forming method of seed-layer by all plating process, and developed the exclusive plating process and film materials. As a result, we succeed producing the polyimide film with seed-layer which has high adhesion strength. This time, we have newly developed remover of nickel seed-layer and built up the process which is applying to semi-additive method. We hereby explain the through process from forming of seed-layer to pattern etching.
Connected terminations, such as wiring boards or packaging and others, applies many kind of surface finishing to be depended upon their usage and joining process. In these situations, electroless Ni/Au plating or electroless Ni/Pd/Au plating has studied and adopted in order to gain the high joining reliability of soldering and wire bonding.
However, thickness of nickel plating film will be an adverse effect of fine pattern capacity, because connected terminations will be miniaturization further owing to downsizing of electronic devices and others hereafter.
From these backgrounds, we have developed a direct electroless palladium/gold plating process on copper "TOP PALLAS PROCESS" as the new plating process which has excellent heat resistance and fine pattern capacity.
We hereby report the concept of development of this process and mechanism of new catalytic solution "PALLAS PRE-COAT", and the film properties provided from "TOP PALLAS PROCESS".
Chromium plating has been applying in a wide range of the various fields owing to its excellent appearance, corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance. However, as hexa-valent chromium plating bath contains much amount of chromic acid in the plating solution, and hexa-valent chromium is contained in the mist generated during plating, it gives serious problem to the environment. Forthis purpose, recently, the conversion to tri-valent chromium plating has been progressing as the substitution technology in the decoration plating field.
In this paper, by applying of the investigation of chromium plating from potential-pH diagram, wewish to introduce some advantages of tri-valent chromium plating in comparison with hexa-valentchromium plating. And also, we wish to show the comparison results of appearance, corrosion resistance, film composition, film structure, Vicker's hardness and others of the deposition film fromtri-valent chromium plating in comparison with those of the plating film from hexa-valent chromium plating.
Furthermore, we also checked the possibility of thick film plating from tri-valent chromium plating solution and studied the assignment of its as the substitution technology for hard chromium plating,and finally, we wish to show the control method of the tri-valent chromium plating bath.
Dyeing treatment of anodized aluminum has been applying in wide range of various fields in the industrial scale, as we can expect many variety of color tone. However, owing to organic dyes, it has one subject of color fade-out by sun-light, and improvement of light fastness is required.To reply to this requirement, we focused our attention on the hindered amine light stabilizer having radical trapping function, and developed water base light fastness improver "TAC SUN BLOCK 77"
In this paper, we wish to introduce the complicated color fade-out mechanism of dyes by sun light and the radical trapping function of hindered amine light stabilizer called as "Denisov cycle". Wealso introduce the light fastness property and its application method of TAC SUN BLOCK 77.
In PTFE composite electroless nickel plating, fluorine type surface active agent called as "PFOS" has been applying generally to disperse PTFE in the plating solution and co-deposit it with nickel to the plating film.
However, recently, we are concerned that this PFOS compound has possibility to give various troubles by accumulating into the natural world or in an organism. So, various countries such as EU, Japan and U.S.A. have been checking it as one of the objects for the restricted substance.
Under this circumstance, we studied the PFOS-free PTFE composite electroless plating solution which is applicable to the PFOS restriction, and developed the plating solution named "TOP NICOSITE TFE" having same level of properties with the conventional bath (PFOS type).In this paper, we wish to introduce the application condition and the properties of TOP NICOSITE TFE as well as the outline of the PFOS restriction.
Ceramic color for automobile is printed to the peripheral part at inside of automotive window glass(laminated glass and tempered glass), and fired at the same time of bending and tempering process.
The main properties required to this ceramic color are blocking off from ultra-violet ray to prevent deterioration of organic adhesive and shielding of over-flown part. In accordance with the preceding progress of environmental responsiveness of automotive industry, the application to the environment is required to the ceramic color for automobile. Under our investigation of ceramic color composed of lead-free glass in place of lead such as bismuth or zinc as its main component, our lead-free ceramic color for automobile was applied to the our lead-free ceramic color for automobile was applied to the automobile since 1997.since 1997. In 2007, after 10 years later of this initial application, the ratio of lead-free glass in the total domestic supplying amount of our ceramic color for automobile reached 95%. The black color inorganic pigment we have been using now contains tri-valent chromium compound, and we can not prevent the possibility that the tri-valent chromium changes to hexa-valent chromium under various application circumstances such as exposure to ultra-violet ray and others.
Recently, in build-up boards, via-filing plating which is filled-via by plating has been applying widely. We started research and development of acid copper plating additives for via-filling plating, and developed and put "TOP LUCINA BVF" in 2000 and "TOP LUCINA α" in 2001 into the market.We could enjoy fine reputations from extremely many clients to our "TOP LUCINA α" by its excellent via-filling effect, wider application range to through-hole and pattern plating and by development of "TOP LUCINA RF" which could refresh the plating bath quickly. After that,we developed new products such as "TOP LUCINA FA" applicable to insoluble anode and "TOP LUCINA NSV" having via-filling effect and excellent throwing power one by one, and obtained many experiences of actual application.
In this paper, we wish to introduce our additives for via-filling plating.
Electroless Ni-P/Au plating has been applying as the final surface treatment on the package boards such as BGA (Ball Grid Array), CSP (Chip Size Package) and others.
However, in case of electroless Ni-P/immersion gold plating process, the underlying nickel will be dissolved at the immersion gold plating step, and excess erosion of Ni-P plating film will induce bad influence on the solder bonding effect. As the countermeasure of this problem, we are recommending to apply electroless Ni-P/Pd/Au plating process which can reduce the damage of the underlying Ni and improve the heat-resistance.
In this paper, we wish to introduce mainly the comparison result of the P content ratio in the underlying Ni-P plating film and the bonding strength of Pb-free solder at each process of electroless Ni-P/Au and electorless Ni-P/Pd/Au plating process. And we also introduce the checked result of the relation between the Pd and Au plating film thickness and au wire bonding effect at electroless Ni-P/Pd/Au plating.
Pure-con System is a simple visualizing (monitoring) technology of organic impurities. By this system, we can confirm the ratio of contamination of plating solution by organic impurities and purification effect of these organic impurities by activated carbon treatment. So this system is the technology for the line control, which is enable to measure the content of organic impurities in various waste water relating to surface treatment by simple and low cost method using spectrophotometer. In many cases, activated carbon filter used to remove organic impurities from the plating solution has been using fiber type activated carbon having high adsorption rate and adsorption amount of impurities. So, by applying this pure-con system, we can select suitable activated carbon to the contained impurities. In future, we believe that the selection of activated carbon filter by the application purpose and condition becomes important point.
Electroless Ni/Au plating has been applying widely to solder joint, AuWB (wire bonding) as the final surface treatment for electronics board. Printed wiring boards can be classified widely into ceramic, rigid, FPC and others. We have been devoted ourselves to development of treatment processes of electroless Ni/Au plating combining the necessary properties on each board respectively.
Though FPC board is thin and good ductile, by applying of electroless Ni plating or electrolytic Ni plating on copper wiring of FPC board, it can not follow to the ductility of Cu electrode part and crack may form. In case of boards mounting liquid crystal driver and others, wiring is very fine and board is bent at assembling. So this type of trouble is apt to occur.
We have been devoting ourselves to development of electroless Ni plating film having excellent ductility and suitable for flexible board, and we already put our developed solution into themarket.
In this paper, we wish to introduce the properties of plating film and the mechanism of bending resistance of high P type electroless Ni plating solution "ICP NICORON SOF Series" and middle P type "ICP NICORON FPF" having excellent bending resistance.
PFP COPPER FF is environmental friendly type electroless Cu-Ni alloy plating bath containing sodium hypo-phosphite as reducing agent, and realized high adhesion to polyimide film which was difficult to gain by the conventional electroless copper plating bath.
Recently, by the regulation of hazardous substances by ELV Directive and RoHS Directive in EU,lead, mercury, cadmium and hexa-valent chromium became the substances to be regulated asheavy metal.
In electroless nickel plating, heavy metal compounds, especially lead compound has been applying as stabilizer and brightener. So trace amount of lead is co-deposited into the deposition film. Therefore, it will become object of regulation of ELV Directive and RoHS Directive depending on the co-deposition amount. Under this circumstance, many requirements to development of lead-free electroless nickel plating solution were submitted to us from various manufacturers.
In reply to these requirements, we started development of lead-free products of electroless nickel plating solution from few years before, and developed lead-free electroless nickel plating solution "TOP NICORON LF Series" which can be applied to ELV Directive and RoHS Directive.
Furthermore, in this paper, we wish to introduce our newly developed heavy metal-free electroless nickel plating solution "TOP NICORON GE Series" which can be applied to not only ELV Directive and RoHS Directive, but also heavy metal regulation in future.
To make printed wiring boards finer and higher multi-layer, via-filling plating has been applying in mass production scale. However, it has poor stability and we have been suffered from the problem of decrease in filling effect according to the deterioration of brightener by aging.
And also, in case of the universal type boards having through holes, to improve productivity,they have been producing at high current density. However, in prolonged continuous electrolysis, anode sludge is accumulated and the film thickness becomes uneven. Furthermore,to prevent this rough deposition by the anode sludge, it is required to apply periodical anode maintenance.
It was reported that the cause for this decrease in filling effect and sludge formation was mono-valent copper compound formed on phosphorus copper anode surface. We developed "TOP LUCINA HG" which improves the productivity by dissolving this mono-valent copper. In this paper, we wish to introduce the effect, mechanism and application method of TOP LUCINA HG.
To recent plating process on plastics, it is essential to apply etching treatment by mixed solution of chromic acid and sulfuric acid. However, in consideration of the environmental protection, substitution of chromic acid etching is demanded.
As the substitution of chromic acid, we can point out permanganate, and the conventional acidic permanganate solution has high etching effect. However, this solution has poor bath stability and can not be applied for a long period continuously. We succeeded in solving this subject, and developed acidic permanganate etching solution which has good bath stability.
In this paper, we wish to introduce plating process on plastics "CRP-MARS Process" which applies plating by direct acid copper plating having low environmental loading after application of the developed acidic permanganate etching treatment.
Conventional electronic circuit of the Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) transparent conductive film was formed by chemical etching after formation by spattering or other methods on the glass substrates. This method is high cost process owing to need large-scale equipment and many steps. So the substitution the formation method of transparent conductive film is required.
Among the formation methods of transparent conductive film, screen printing method needs only printing equipment and firing furnace, and can eliminate the patterning step. By this method, manufacturing cost can be reduced and formation on large substrates is easy.
In this paper, we describe newly developed ITO nanoparticle paste "Nanodisper ITO" for the electronic circuit formation of transparent conductive film by screen printing method.
We, OKUNO Chemical Industries Co., Ltd. have been carrying on business for 60 years since establishment of our business corporation. If we liken our company to the human life, it passed the end of the traditional sexagenary cycle. In this period, we could establish our firm situation in the fields of Metal Finishing Department, Food Ingredients Department and Inorganic Materials Department. We trust that this establishment of firm situation is result of the efforts and assiduity of our seniors and present staffs under our corporate motto "Create products to beloved truly and be human to be loved by everybody."
However, with the change of the times, we are now in the end of the time which we alone can make profit and enjoy our business life. We have to contribute positively to the social circle through our products. One of our positive contributions to the social circle is our activity to environmental measures.
In taking the trend of the times into consideration, in 1998, we started our project by appointing our president as the project leader for acquirement of Environmental Management System ISO14001 Certification. In 1999, we acquired it to Hanaten Production Sites, and in2001, acquired it to whole activities of OKUNO.
The signification of acquirement of ISO 14001 Certification is our firm determination "We will try our best efforts to reduce various issues giving bad influences on the earth environment as much as possible in the process of manufacturing our products and managing business."
In this paper, we wish to introduce our activities and their results for environmental measure ssince kicking-off our project in 1998.
Quality control is defined by JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) as line of the activity for company to improve the quality of their commodities and service provided to their clients.
The activity of quality control in Japan has been penetrating widely to the production sites of the manufacturing industry and contributing to the remarkable improvement of quality of the products in Japan. However, we have to change our quality control system (quality assurance)by responding to the needs in the time changing rapidly. Otherwise, our company will be left from the change of the market. As the quality assurance today for us, quick providing products and service which have the quality giving full satisfactions to the clients, applying of product inspection to meet the required quality from the clients and establishing the quality control system to prevent formation of similar claims by utilizing the customers complains are requested.
Furthermore, it is important to establish the system which utilizes the information of chemical substances in an integrated way under the trend that secures safety and health of human body and the activity to environmental protection becomes active. And also, under the circumstance that many Japanese firms have been expanding their operations to overseas, we have to promote positively shift of manufacturing site to overseas.
Surface treatment technology has been applying widely in various fields such as automotive,machinery, electronics, electric, semi-conductor and others, and now is an essential technology for improvement of function of the final products. Furthermore, recently, further improvement of the qualities of the products is needed and at the same time, severe demands for cost reduction becomes higher and higher. Under these circumstances, high quality and performance of the products, control of chemicals and treatment condition become very important.
We, OKUNO, established Technical Supports section which provides technical support and after sales service in sales division apart from our Main Research Laboratory. Technical Supports,Metal Finishing has been providing our clients at each district of Osaka, Nagoya and Tokyo as our base of sales with technical explanation of our products and technical follow of their production lines.
We wish to introduce the present situation and future trend of our technical support including technical support relating to development of new product.
In treatment process of plating on plastics, we have been using chromic acid etching,chromium plating and lead component as the stabilizer of electroless nickel plating solution. However, these items are not regulated by WEEE and RoHS.
Ahead of the establishment of environmental regulation on plastics plating in future, we have been setting industrialization of plastics plating process without usage of any hazardous substances as our goal. In this report, we wish to introduce mainly direct acid copper plating process (CRP Process) without applying of electroless nickel plating step and chromic acid etching-free plating process which is now in under development with their mechanism.
Under the recent trend of paying attention to environmental protection, development and practical application of "Friendly technology to human life and the earth" are demanded.
Especially, since appointment of regulated substances by EU or others, at the steps from manufacturing products containing these substances to disposal (re-usage), development and practical application of application technology and substitution technology have been proceeding.
We developed and put "ES Coat Series" as chemical treatment agent for zinc plating using trivalent chromium into the market. ES Coat Series have 3 types of blue color, rainbow color and black color, and can be applied to the conventional present facility and can be applied to wide range of requirements of clients.
In this report, we wish introduce mainly black color ES Coat Black SOP which is applicable to various kinds of zinc plating film.
By the recent regulation of hazardous substances by EU Directive (ELV, WEEE, RoHS Directive), lead, mercury, cadmium and hexa-valent chromium, and PBB and PBDE as boron type fire retardant became the subject substances to be regulated. So, in surface treatment filed, we are requested to respond to the trend to lead-free and hexa-valent chromium-free.
In electroless nickel plating solution, the lead contents used as stabilizer or brightener is involved into the plating film. So there are some possibilities to become the subject of regulation of EU Directive by its co-deposition amount. Therefore, the requirements from various manufacturers to shift to lead-free electroless nickel plating solution have been increasing further and further.
We started study for development of lead-free electroless nickel plating solution since few years before, and developed lead-free electroless nickel plating solution "TOP NICORON LF Series" applicable to EU Directive.
Furthermore, we developed electroless nickel plating solution "TOP NICORON GE Series" which does not contain any heavy metals as stabilizer by consideration of complying with not only EU Directive, but also heavy metal regulation in future. In this paper, we wish to introduce this new technologies.
Recently,we found that mono-valent copper formed on phosphorus copper anode surface deteriorated brightener and influenced badly to plating properties. Especially, at via-filling plating, deterioration of brightener decreases filling effect and gives the biggest disturbance at mass-production. Insoluble anode which will not form mono-valent copper is effective means to maintain the filling effect stably,can reduce formation of rough deposition and nodule and make deposition film uniform. So this additive can be applied to next generation fine pattern boards. For these advantages, we trust that the application of insoluble anode to via-filling plating will increase further.
In this paper, we wish to introduce the basic properties and cautions in usage of TOP LUCINA FA which makes stable long term usage possible by optimizing the application of insoluble anode.
Electroless Ni/Au plating has been applied widely to solder bonding and AuWB (wire bonding)as the final surface treatment on printed wiring boards and package boards. According to the recent trend of miniaturization and lighter and more compact size of mobile devices, the area of electrode has become extremely small to realize high density packaging. Therefore, the requirement to higher reliability to surface treatment technology on electrode such as electroless Ni/Au plating film has been increasing more and more. As the properties requested to electroless Ni/Au plating process, we can point out applicability to fine pattern,ductility and high corrosion resistance of Ni plating, and improvement of covering power and heat-resistance of Au plating.
We have been addressing ourselves to the above stated required properties, reduction of environmental load substances and plating process on the materials which are hard to be plated. Finally, we developed new chemical having better properties than the former process. In this report, we wish to introduce this new technology.
The formation of copper circuit on printed wiring board has been applying by electroless copper plating method, and its adhesion is gained by macro-anchor effect by undulation of resin surface formed by etching treatment. However, in consideration of future trend to finer pattern,the circuit formation method on flat board having small surface roughness is required.
At TECHNO CLEAR PROCESS which can form ZnO film chemically, control of film structure by film formation condition is possible, and it is possible to deposit ZnO film having nano-porous structure direct on non-conductive material surface at low temperature. By applying of this nano-porous ZnO film as binder layer, we succeeded in deposit electroless copper plating film having high adhesion on flat glass surface by electroless plating method.
From 3 viewpoints of analysis of plating solution, observation of plating layer, and structural analysis of plating layer, we tried to approach to plating and wish to introduce basic features and analysis examples for various analysis instruments.
We wish to introduce the analysis methods of the metallic components, main components beside metals and trace amount of components in the plating solution. We explain the principle, features and others of Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry (AA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) for analysis of metals, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) for analysis of main components beside metals, and Cyclic Voltammetric Stripping (CVS) for analysis of trace amount of components.
As the observation method of surface and cross section of the plating layer, we are applying various kinds of microscope. In this paper, we wish to introduce the features and observation examples of Stereoscopic Microscope, Metallurgical Microscope and Laser Microscope as optical microscope, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) as electron microscope, and Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) and Scanning Ion Microscope (FIB-SIM).
The physical and chemical properties which are required to plating layer have close relation to the structure of film. We wish to explain X-ray Diffraction (XRD) which is applied to analyze the crystal structure of metal, ceramic or others, and introduce X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS) which can analyze the elements existed on the outer surface of the solid and their chemical bonding status.
We wish to introduce the features of Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry, Capillary Electrophoresis, Ion Chromatography, Laser Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, Scanning Ion Microscope, X-ray Diffraction Device and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.
Several industry-academy-kosetsushi collaboration contributions to the promotion of surface finishing technology in Nagoya area are described.
Technology development to comply with the environmental regulations and human resource development to enable the succession and further promotion of techniques and skills are the subjects for surface finishing industry to overcome. Industry-academy-kosetsushi collaboration should be effectively utilized to solve them.
I introduce some application examples of Industry-Government-Academia collaboration through plating technology from the point of view of writer who was in the public institute. And also, as the plating technology is now the essential key technology for the forefront industries, I outline the plating technology applicable to the future needs with the writer's forecast.
Recently, by incorporation of the national and public universities, and the transition of industrial technology plan as the national policy, promotion of industry-government-academia collaboration and technology transfer of the research achievements to industry have become active. To enhance the technical capabilities of development type companies like OKUNO, it is essential to establish their own technologies in- house. Beside this, it is also rational to utilize the newly developed technologies in cooperation with the outside organizations.
In this paper, we wish to introduce our professional attitude to industry-government-academia collaboration, and the examples for participation in cross-industrial association, local consortium and others. And also, we wish to introduce our development concept based on the research and development and creation of new products.
According to the development of global economy, the environmental problems have been spreading to not only Japan, but also all over the world, and are all in a extremely serious situation. In the process of continuous treatment for global environmental problems, various regulations and laws were established such as World Human Environment Conference (Stockholm Conference, 1972), International Environmental Development Conference (Global Summit, 1992, Rio de Janeiro), World Summit (WSSC, 2002) for durable development, and others.
In this paper, we have investigated the present situation and trend of world-wide environmental regulations, at first, we investigated the content and situation of WEEE & RoHS of EU which was the earliest action at present in the world, and ELV regulation for automotives and REACH of new law. And at the second step, we wish to introduce the present situation of environmental regulations in Japan and environmental regulations in other countries.
Furthermore, we summarized the present progress and matters in question for these regulations, and future response at surface treatment industry such as whisker problem of tin by lead-free trend, tri-valent chromium chromating film of hexa-valent chromium-free and others. Though laws and regulations relating to environmental protection in Europe were established almost completely, there is the case (REACH Law) that certain duty is imposed to the uses of chemical substances. So we have to give our careful attention to this matter. We wish to introduce the method for collecting the latest information.
We have been developing environmental friendly plastics plating process for the purpose of environmental protection. In this paper, we wish to introduce (1) Plating process which is applying permanganate salt as the substitution of chromic acid etchant, (2) Description of"TOP F-CAP Process"and its adhesion mechanism as chromic acid etching-free process by newly developed PA/ABS resin, and (3)"CHEMICAL NNICKEL SEP" as lead-free electroless nickel plating solution for plastics plating.
In automotive, electronics components and electric appliances industries, they are requested to response to the laws and regulations for usage of lead such as ELV directive, WEEE Directive and RoHS Directive in EU with increase in attentions to the recent environmental protection. In surface treatment industry also, the quick response to lead-free and chromium-free is required.
In electroless nickel plating, lead compounds are added for few ppm as the stabilizer or brightener, and this lead component will co-deposit in the plating film. In some applications, the substitution to lead-free is required.
We developed new electroless nickel plating solutions named "TOP NICORON LF Series" which do not contain any lead type stabilizer with maintaining their properties as before. In this paper, we introduce our lead-free electroless nickel plating solutions and chromium-free post-treatment agents by focusing on the outline of EU Directive and properties of TOP NICORON SA-98-LF and TOP NICORON TOM-LF.
The conventional hexa-valent chromium type chromating (hereinafter referred as "hexa-valent chromating") was established firmly as the technology which gave high corrosion resisting film easily at low cost. However, hexa-valent chromium will be cause for not only contamination of soil and water, chromium allergy and penetration hole of nasal septum, but also possibility of cancer in contacting with human body, In EU Instructions, hexa-velent chromium is listed in the subject substances for regulation, so in our domestic market, the quick response is required.
We developed chromating agent for zinc plating using tri-valent chromium as the technology of hexa-valent chromium-free.
ES COAT (white color) can give high corrosion resistance at the same or higher level of hexa-valent chromating treatment (yellow color), and has been supplying at the production lines of our ten-odd customers. It is possible to dye ES COAT by dye-stuffs such as red, blue, yellow and others.
ES COAT BLACK SOP gives high corrosion resistance at the same or higher level of black color hexa-valent chromating by applying of top coat treatment. Corrosion resistance and black color appearance can be controlled by adjusting the adsorption ratio of cobalt in the chromating film. In other words, these factors can be controlled by adjusting the components in the chromating solution.
Tri-valent chromium type chromating (hereinafter referred as "tri-valent chromating") does not contain the harmful hexa-valent chromium, and is excellent technology for environmental protection.
The progress of recent electronics technologies is remarkable. As the supporting technologies of this technology progress, there are packaging and mounting technologies. However, as this technology progress has been reaching an upper limit of technology, the development of break-through technology to overcome this technical barrier is required.
In this paper, we wish to discuss about various technical subjects required as our near future packaging technology, manufacturing method for high density packaging, and mounting technology for passive components and thin silicon chip at SIP (System In a Package). The plating technology at these technologies is extremely important as manufacturing technology and should be reliable technology as via fill by copper plating, The seepression of bubbles after reflowing of solder plating or soldering, and intermetalics formation at the boundary of nickel/phosphorus plating and solder are also. These technologies are discussed with the reaction mechanisms.
As our final topics, the environmental friendly which plating technology is discussed. The technology mover to use function water and reduce chemicals, Finally we introduce our attempt of new nano-plating and the possibility of high heat dissipation carbon nano-fiber dispersion nickel plating.
Resin reinforced flip chip joint and build-up printed circuit board were introduced with higher interest and reputations in 1991. By defining the role of packaging as"To connect between semiconductor chips at the shortest distance and lowest cost", they are two important technologies consist with bare chip attach developed for this purpose. Resin reinforced flip chip joint makes it possible to apply organic board materials having higher thermal expansions coefficient in place of ceramic substrate to reduce cost of flip chip packaging. Though higher thermal expansion coefficient board is applied, the life of flip chip joint can be extended remarkably by dispersing the stress to in side of the substrate by bonding chip and board with epoxy resin. Build-up printed circuit board can manage high density wiring from a large number of connections from semiconductor chip by flip chip to prepare high density build-up circuit layer having micro-via-hole in place of mechanical drilled through-hole. This paper intends to introduce key points of the two technologies which made flip chip packaging possible to reduce cost.
In accordance with the tendency of lighter weight, finer pattern and higher multi- layer of printed wiring boards based on smaller sized mobile phone, the substrate of boards used has been changing widely. And also, in consideration of the environmental protection, there are many application of halogen-free boards which do not contain any halogen components.
Recently, owing to change in applied substrate of boards, requirements to electroless copper plating have been diversifying. We developed new applicable electroless copper plating process by paying our attention to the latest requirements in the market. This is our electroless copper plating process of the second generation : ATS Series (Advanced Technology Solution). ATS Series have plating properties which we have hard time to gain on the conventional products. In this paper, We wish to report the features of ATS Series.
We studied the influence of P content ratio of electroless Ni-P plating to the bonding strength with Sn-Ag, Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi, Sn-Zn and Sn-Zn-Bi type solders as lead-free solders in comparison with Sn-Pb solder. In solder wettability, Sn-Pb solder was the highest. In case of Sn-Pb solder, the solder bonding strength decreased in accordance with increase in P content ratio in Ni-P plating film. However, Sn-Ag, Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Zn type solders showed high strength and less influence by fluctuation of P content ratio. In case of Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi and Sn-Zn-Bi type solders, the bonding strengths were lower than solders which did not contain Bi.
Our basic concept is that we scientifically investigate various factors such as food tastes, aromas, mouth feeling, colors or shelf life in order to provide the best products, technology and suggestions for processed food industries. At present, we’re tackling with many topics to make more delicious food. In this report, we especially introduce new technology to keep the original colors of food and to improve powder grinding.
We have investigated the molecular weight of peptides and have launched a new decomposed wheat protein that is mainly composed of peptides having short and long chains. Compared with conventional decomposed wheat protein for seasoning that are composed of peptide having short chains, our new products can create new textures, make full-bodied and deep tastes, and enhance spicy and hot feeling in mouth. In this report, we explain why peptides can improve food tastes. Besides, we suggest the application examples to manufacture low-salt food and describe the use of the products for many purposes.
Decomposed wheat protein, which is mainly composed of peptides having short and long chains, can improve the texture and properties of food. Originally, peptides perform a function to enhance food properties by its surfactant effect. We have researched and have succeeded to enhance the effect in order to realize excellent foaming and emulsion properties. In this report, we introduce new functions by decomposed wheat protein that can’t be obtained by conventional protein or peptide materials. Besides, we suggest the application examples for beer or foaming beverage to generate better froth, for caramel to obtain smooth mouth feeling without oil stain, and for ice cream to keep frozen.
PROFECT series (Modified wheat protein using reducing sugar, oil, or polysaccharide) is a new food material to improve food texture and workability. Compared with conventional wheat protein, PROFECT series are used to achieve more excellent acid-resistance as well as high binding- and expanding properties. PROFECT series can improve crunchiness and prevent the adhesion of dough on manufacturing machine for biscuits. Besides, this series can help make chewy noodles and prevent noodle cut in manufacturing process. In this report, we explain basic characters of modified wheat protein, then introduce many improvement examples to manufacture confectionery and noodles using PROFECT series.
Is baking powder merely used for confectionery to increase volume? No, baking powder is effective also in various food and dishes. If you choose the time to cause gas most effectively, baking powder can control oil absorption into batter, raise yield rates for deep-fried food and promote the reconstitution of dried noodles in hot water. In this report, we introduce our coating technology based on rich experiences and describes the features and the applications of our products.
Bacteriostatic agents have significantly contributed the development of processed food. Generally, preservative agents have only a slight influence on food taste; however, bacteriostatic agents often spoil original flavors, thus many researchers for processed food have difficult time to develop new products. OKUNO was quick to solve this problem, and launched new bacteriostatic agents by establishing new manufacturing technology: DELI-BLEND, DELI-TAKUMI and DELI-SEKKA. In this report, we introduce the changes about bacteriostatic agents in processed food industries and our latest developments.
At the time of September in 2016, Cook-pad, the biggest search site about cooking recipes in the world, hadaccumulated approximately 2,470,000 kinds of recipes on the Internet. About 550,000 recipes, 22 % of the total number were surprisingly relating to eggs. It clearly means that the Japanese people like eggs very much. Also, it is assumed that eggs are quite popular for Japanese because it’s great nutritional functions as well as physical properties applicable to various cooking and food processing. Eggs have physical properties for cooking, in particular, such as the gelation of egg white by heating, thefoaming ability of egg white and the emulsifying ability of egg yolk. In the latter half of the twentieth century, the mechanisms of these physical properties have been explored from a standpoint of food chemistry to elucidate these in molecule level. In this century, no researches have remained within only gelation, foaming and emulsifying abilities of eggs; furthermore, the methods how to modify gelation, foaming, emulsifying have been noticeable to apply physical properties of egg proteins. In this paper, I’d like to introduce old but new research regarding egg physical property to be used in cooking and food processing. These are transparent gel of egg white, emulsified egg white, and unique boiled eggs such as Gyaku-Onsen Tamago (very soft boiled egg, only egg white gels but egg yolk), Kimi Gaeshi Tamago (boiled egg, egg white gels inside while yolk outside) and controlling hardness of boiled eggs in Oden (Oden is a type of Japanese stew, made by simmering various ingredients). These researches are based on my egg-citing research for thirty-eight-year.
Recently, people have become increasingly health-conscious, and the trend toward less-sodium food is growing among general consumers. As the substitutes for sodium chloride, potassium chloride is commonly used; however, potassium chloride has weak points in its tastes such as the shortage of salty taste, leaving unpleasant tastes. Therefore, we’ve improved the tastes of potassium chloride and developed it as POTASHIO series. In this article, I’d like to introduce the backgrounds of our developments about POTASHIO series; besides, I’d like to explain taste improvement mechanism of POTASHIO series based on our original technology, and the application examples of POTASHIO series in order to realize less-sodium still delicious food.
Various factors, such as meal appearances or textures, are included in tastes that are required for processed food. The excellence in loosing properties is one of indicators to evaluate the tastes of noodles. We have combined the development of noodle loosing improvers with the improvement technology for emulsifiers and vegetable proteins; consequently, we have successfully developed noodle loosing improvers that can be used by kneading and have placed the new products on the market. In this article, I’d like to introduce the features about PARALLEL KIWAMI, our new product for noodle loosing, also explains the effectiveness of the product.
When steamed cakes are produced, the cakes easily shrink after steaming, thus the shrinkage is one of the issues to be solved. We can change steaming conditions or can use different baking powders especially for steamed cakes. In the case, however, we’ll need a long time and complicated processes to find the best condition; consequently, the speed of the development easily slows down. Accordingly, we introduce our special baking powders especially for steamed cakes, also special quality improvers to prevent the decrease in size of the cakes from our latest researches. In this article, I’d like to explain the influences of baking powders on the cakes; besides, I’d like to explain the effectiveness of quality improvers in steamed cakes.
Shelf life improvers are essential in our daily life to ensure the preservative quality of processed food in order to provide safe food for consumers. Additionally, if the preservative quality of food can be raised by controlling microorganisms, it will contribute to the extension of expiry date and the reduction of food waste. To satisfy these demands, we are developing food improvers applicable to various processed food. In this article, I’d like to introduce the features and the effectiveness of shelf life improvers focusing on polylysine.
Vital gluten, which can be separated from wheat flour by water rinse, is widely used as quality improvers for various processed food such as bread and noodles. We have focused on the vital gluten from early. Accordingly, we have developed the processed gluten using polysaccharides or oils based on our original technology. In this article, I’d like to introduce our new product, PROFECT S that is the processed gluten using reducing sugar, and explains the original features and application methods about the new product.
OKUNO is developing the new food materials whose protein is improved by new functionalities. We have focused on the gel ability from soybean protein, which is one of protein from vegetables. Then, we have combined the protein with polysaccharides by our special technology, and succeeded to obtain the interaction between them. From this interaction, we can raise the texture for more chewy or soft feeling. In this presentation, we'd like to explain the processed soybean protein in detail, adding application examples to noodles for more chewy texture.
If we add an anti-bacteria agent for cakes together with baking powder, we will face with problems such as cake-volume decreasing or poor tastes. On the volume problem, it is resulted from the reaction of sodium bicarbonate and certain organic acid in anti-bacteria agents. From this reaction, gas-forming generally becomes uncontrollable that will cause volume decreasing. Besides, excessive salts are generated from the combined addition, which may impair food tastes. To avoid these problems, we have succeeded to integrate the organic acid in anti-bacteria agents into our baking powder by our special technology. In this presentation, we'd like to explain our new baking powder combined with the organic acid with anti-bacteria effect in detail, adding improved features and application examples.
Tyrosinase is one of oxidase that generally exists in the nature. It oxidizes the amino acid called tyrosine, from which brown pigments such as melanin are subseque叫y produced. Many researchers all over the world have studies the method to prevent tyrosine oxidation because it will create the spots and blemishes on our skins, otherwise, the food discoloration will be resulted from it after a long-time storage. In this presentation, we'd like to explain about our Roasted Rice Bran Extract as we have found it will be effective in tyrosinase inhibitory. Also, we're introducing the application examples for foods.
Anti-bacteria agents are quite important in order to extend the shelf life of the processed foods as well to ensure the food safety for consumers. These days, more and more consumers want to reduce the intake of preservatives due to the negative image. At the same time, the requests for further food safety and security as well as taste-improvements are still much in demand on the market. About Okuno, we have developed anti-bacteria agents for a long time to match various consumers'demands. In this presentation, we'd like to review the history around the agents in the industry. And then, we're offering the most advanced technology applied to our anti-bacteria agents.
Spherical seamless-capsule that is adjusted by using coaxial multiplex nozzle has been applied to mouth freshener, food, functional food, medicine and cosmetics etc. And it has become possible to make capsule of oily material such as essential oil of fragrance, hydrophilic material such as water extract and etc. Therefore, the application range has extended greatly In addition, seamless-capsule of intestines-soluble has been developed which has acid resistance so that it doesn't dissolves in stomach and collapses in intestines. So, it has become possible to release contents in intestines selectively Especially, living Bifidobacteria weak to stomach acid that were wrapped in the acid-resistant enteric capsule of three layers reached to intestines and exhibited a ready intestines action and various bioactivities which were not observed so much by killed Bifidobacteria. So, the encapsulated Bifidobacteria has been applied to functional food, medicine and etc In artificial dialysis patient of blood, not only improvement of bowel movement, but also new effect of decrease of uremia material etc. has been recognized by intake of bifidobacterium capsule. In this paper, we introduce manufacturing method, advantages and various application example of seamless-capsule.
The needs that are required for product are diversified than before by development of distribution system of product in the food mdustry Especially, product development that can supply delicious products without degradation of food texture for a long time under condition of chilled distribution have been required because chilled western confectionery and dessert that are sold at convenience store became popular recently.
In this paper, we describe volume up of chocolate cake and inhibition of aging of sponge cake at low temperature range as examples about "Prefect CG" that utilize oil processed protein and that can do improvement of palatability, volume up and inhibition of degradation of food texture as base materials that can meet needs of chilled distribution of such fields of confectionery and baking.
And we describe about application examples to chiffon cake, chiffon roll, bouchee and etc. of " TOP SWEETS CF610" that 1s mix powder for chiffon cake and that also utilizes oil processed protein. Advantages of TOP SWEETS CF610 is as follows: ① Unnecessary making meringue and require only one bowl ② Good keeping shape ability and no sag in the middle of cake ③ Inhibiting of aging by preservation in a refrigerator, etc.
Here are externals of color and shape, etc., smell, taste and texture as an important element that decides palatability of food Especially, up to now, the seasoning has been used to process and to cook food as one of the effective items that adjust the taste and the texture of food.
So far, we have worked on the development of agent of seasoning that can achieve improvement of taste and effect of texture improvement more efficiently and that can manufacture delicious processed foods.
In this paper, we introduce fermented seasoning" KOMAAJI HOJYUN" to have taste and effect of texture improvement, and describe effect of quality improvement when it is applied for the various food.
It is required to consider to creation of product that satisfies taste of consumer, degradation of food texture that happens during storage or distribution and soaring raw materials situation at scene of development of confectionery.
In this paper, we introduce and describe PROFECT GX which meets these demands as a product that supports the product development. PROFECT GX is improving agent for confectionery that applied from oil processed wheat protein and polysaccharides. It improves the moisture retention and the shape retention. We mention about each effect of improvement of moisture retention of madeleine, shape retention of chiffon cake, molding of low-calorie cake, and yield rate of pancake or dorayaki. In addition, it describes an easy cooking method of canele.
The main components of scallop-shell, which creates serious problems such as emission of offensive odorous and soil pollution from heavy metals contained the viscera in Hokkaido and Aomori prefecture, is CaCO3. Through heat treatment, CaCO3 was converted to CaO. The heated scallop-shell exhibited the antibacterial activities, which increased with heating temperature. The occurrence of antibacterial activity was due to generation of CaO. The heated scallop-shell powder could kill the bacterial spore, which has a high resistivity to stresses, as well as the vegetative cells of bacteria. The bactericidal action of the shell powder is greater than that of a NaOH solution of identical pH. Although the pH of the shell powder slurry is high, the slurry was considered to possess other antibacterial mechanisms in addition to that of alkalinity.
When the heated shell powder preparations were applied to fresh vegetables and fruits, the treatments could reduce the viable bacterial cells effectively and were dominant to sodium hypochlorite treatment. The use of these materials in food processing is therefore not only to be a source of minerals but also to prolong the shelf life of foodstuffs. If these materials are discarded as refuse in open air, CaO reforms into CaCO3, by absorbing CO2 from air. In recent years, the development of antimicrobial agents that are very safe for the natural environment has been a goal. The application of these materials are expected in food processing.
Anti-aging of rice is a subject for chilled rice such as plain white rice, box lunch and others distributed and sold under low temperature. It is found that some of the components are effective to anti-aging of rice by prior research, however they are not enough and more effective anti-aging materials are expected. We hereby report the anti-aging effect of "TOP BLOOMY", which is emulsified oil for rice, which has developed as the more effective anti-aging agent for rice.
Though calcinated shell calcium has been attracted as the substitutional sterilization of sodium hypochlorite, there are some problem such as low dissolving ability into water and others. Therefore, we have investigated improvement of dissolving ability of calcinated shell calcium into water, and we have compared the effect of calcinated shell calcium with its of sodium hypochlorite. As a result, we have succeeded dissolving 2.0%(W/W) of calcinated shell calcium into water, and we have marketed as "TOP VEGEACE SLC". In case of sensory evaluation by cut vegetables after sanitizing, "TOP VEGEACE SLC" keeps the original savor of vegetables and provides better results compared with sodium hypochlorite. Consideration of sanitizing effect under existing of organic substances, we have found "TOP VEGEACE SLC" is hard to be influenced by organic substances compared with sodium hypochlorite regarding Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Hansenula anomala. Sanitizing effects treated by 3.0 to 5.0% solution of "TOP VEGEACE SLC" for various food materials, have showed comparable or more with them treated by 200ppm solution of sodium hypochlorite. Especially, "TOP VEGEACE SLC" has shown high sanitizing effect for coliform.
We analyzed a neuron-like cultured cell, PC12 cell, and hepatocytes and neurons of senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP10) with immunohisto/cytochemistry, electron microscopyand immunoblotting to know how they were influenced by resveratrol, a polyphenol rich inred wine, with possible effect mimicking caloric restriction. Resveratrol treatment providedcytotoxic damage on undifferentiated PC12 cells but did NGF-like effect, extending neuritis,on differentiated PC 12 cells. In SAMP10 liver, resveratrol reduced the size and distributiondensity of lipid droplets, which increase with aging or obesity, in hepatocytes, and enhancedphagocytotic activity of Kupffer cells. Among proteins expressed in hepatocytes, resveratrolincreased the expression of proteins related with cellular activation while reduced onesassociated with cellular aging or degeneration. Equally, in the central nervous system ofthe mice, resveratrol reduced the appearance of lipofuscin granules, a marker for the brainaging, enhanced the expression of proteins connected with activation of neuronal function,and decreased the ones involved in aging/neurodegeneration. Taken together, resveratrol mayfunction as cytotoxic on tumor cells, but as beneficial to normally differentiated cells, promotingtheir growth or protecting them from aging or degeneration.
Active oxygen is produced from white corpuscle (especially Neutrophil) to sterilize the bacteriainvaded in the body. However, if the amount is too much, they will injure cells. And also,it becomes cause of blood vessel system disorders by oxidation of fat and formation of lipidperoxide. As other factors of appearance of active oxygen, we can enumerate stress, drinking alcohol,smoking and others. There are super oxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in theseactive oxygen, and in case of taking ultraviolet rays, oxygen under the subcutaneous tissuechanges to singlet oxygen which is one of the active oxygen, and it becomes cause of freckle orwrinkle. Our product "Desmey" (roasted rice bran extract and roasted soybean extract) is effective agentto remove them. Besides removing chemically made active oxygen, we proved the eliminationeffect of the active oxygen by experiment on a living rat which was given stress. We introducethe details of these results.
In food industry, we have been developing new products and applications in replying to variousneeds from consumers. New products have been developed with setting the trend of year andseason. There are many requests for development of the materials which can provide taste tofoods and keep the quality, and such requests are increasing year by year. We paid attention to gluten (wheat protein) as the material, and attempted improvement of thematerial with various treatments. From these experiences, we found that improved gluten byoil gave a new function, and examined it as the useful material for improving the texture andphysical properties. In this article, we introduce the oil processed protein as new functional material for confectionary and bread, and the effect of "Profect CG" which is the material for confectionarycontaining oil processed protein.
Since ancient times, eggs have been consumed as food and utilized as ingredient for various food products. People's diets have been nutritionally enriched by learning the cooking or processing eggs for food products in various ways. Egg shows magnificent properties at cooking. These are the reasons why eggs are widely utilized in cooking and manufacturing of various processed foods or confectioneries.
In the food industry, the important functional properties of eggs are: Heat induced gelation and foaming properties of eggs albumen and emulsifying properties of egg yolk. Heating, foaming or emulsifying treatment on eggs cause changes in the structure of egg white proteins and egg yolk lipoproteins which results in changes of functional properties like capacity of holding water, air or oil.
In Japan, heat induced gelation of egg albumen has been applied for processing ham, sausages, boiled fish paste (Kamaboko), and noodles. The foaming property of egg is used in making cakes and meringue, and the emulsifying property, for mayonnaise and salad dressings, etc.
In this article, the research work carried out on the influence of salts, pH, and storage time on the functional properties of hen eggs, which are important for food industry, are described. Some recent information about the relationship between protein structures of eggs and their functional properties is also discussed.
In food industry, pursuance of good taste is important subject. In accordance with the changes in the times, we have been trying our best in various type of manner to apply look-over of raw materials and review of formula, processing process and preservation method. In the view point of the composition of foods, we have been applying food additives to improve the physical properties of foods such as thickener, gelation agent, emulsifier and others, and food materials such as starch, protein, oil, saccharoid and others. From the result of our activities to improve the qualities of foods, we found that the protein form wheat created new nature by modification treatment with thickener polysaccharide. In this paper, we wish to introduce our new protein material named "Profect P" utilizing this effect, and its properties and quality improvement effect by applying it to various foods.
Today, we are facing various problems relating to foods. To meet the enhancement of interest of consumers to safety of foods, the food industry appointed the security of "Safety and Comfort" as the most important matter.
Under this circumstance, without any scientific basis to food additives, the recent trend is to minimize the application of them by the image of consumers that they do not trust the safety of food additives. Especially, with reference to preservative, many manufacturers for foods already stopped using.
However, substitution of preservative is required. In this paper, we wish to introduce our preservative quality improvement technology for foods by mainly antimicrobial components which are not preservative.
We also introduce the features, antimicrobial mechanism, antimicrobial effects and others of food materials which are approved to use by Food Sanitation Law and antimicrobial components from microorganism. Furthemore, we introduce the growth condition (temperature, pH, water activity, oxidation-reduction potential, food components and others) of various microorganisms, which is important at combining with them at various conditions to secure higher stable preservative effect.
There is low possibility of increase in consumption amount of these antimicrobial components in future owing to restriction of laws. However, we think that the improvement of the materials which have big influence on flavor and properties of foods and are hard to apply to foods is one of the directions of our development. And also, we are thinking that the development of food materials (including fermented materials) having antimicrobial effect is our future direction.
The objective of this research is to consider the safety of food from the viewpoint of nature of diet. We define that food contains useful components to maintain and improve the health of human body, and provides the safety food stuff by cooking and processing. The purpose of having food for us is to enjoy our healthy daily life and carry out our function as a living organism. However, we can not say that food items are naturally safe by themselves. As one of the things, we can point out the natural toxicants. Living organisms protect themselves from enemies by creating various natural toxicants. It is required to understand clearly that diet is based on such specific properties of the living organism. The safety of food is supported by the risk balance of nutrition and toxicity, and excess of intake of nutrition will lead us to lifestyle-related diseases. In the long history of human species, we have been applying various kinds of knowledge to improve quantity and safety of food stuff.
Now, Japanese food is re-evaluated by recent researches. Our ancestors created foods having good balance of nutrition and toxicity by combining various food materials. As we can see in the proverb "To inquire into the past to be enlightened." , we cannot but be impressed by the knowledge of the ancient people.
We do hope that many people consider the safety of food from the viewpoint of nature of diet.
Today, various Kinds of noodle have been loved and taken in all over the world. In Japan also, the popularity of noodles of extremely high, and various devices have been applying everyday such as for manufacturing method, shape, taking method and others to seek tastier noodle. The noodle originated in China for 1000-2000 years before were the food for mainly Asian people, and today, they were spread to all over the world and have been establishing the firm situation as the international food. As the background of this popular usage, we can say that the development of instant oil fried noodle "Chicken Ramen" and the following competition of development of non-oil fried noodles and raw type instant noodles.
In this paper, in consideration of the history and worldwide usage of noodles, we wish to introduce the following 4 items of (1) Kind of noodle based on the manufacturing method, (2) Classification of noodles in Japan, (3) Present noodles and (4) Subject and improvement of long life noodle (LL noodle) in the instant noodles which are main application in the present noodles.
Oysters (Crassostrea gigas) harvested from major culture areas are sometimes contaminated with norovirus (NV). Elimination of NV from oysters is needed to reduce losses for oyster traders and farmers because it causes gastroenteritis in humans by a fecal-oral route. However, there is little information on survival of NV in marine environments and under inactivating conditions because determination of infectivity of NV by cell culture methods is impossible. Nevertheless, cell propagation of feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate for NV, is possible. Thus, in the present study, survival of FCV in aquatic environments and virucidal effects of UV irradiation, hypochlorite produced by electrolysis of seawater and high hydrostatic pressure were examined. FCV infectivity decreased quickly with temperature increase in seawater. Above 20°C, for a period of 1 week, infectivity decreased to below detection limits. FCV was more unstable in non-treated seawater than in sterilized seawater. Furthermore FCV is unstable in intestinal contents of oyster. Therefore, FCV was inactivated by antiviral substances produced by intestinal bacteria. FCV was inactivated (≥ 99.9%) by UV irradiation at doses of 2.5x104μW・sec/cm2. At the concentration of 0.23 and 0.41 mg/L of chlorine, produced by electrolysis of 3% NaCl solution and seawater reduced infectivity more than 99% in 1 min, respectively. Seawater electrolyzers have ability to treat large volumes of water and cost performance of this method is better than that of UV irradiation. Challenged with high hydrostatic pressure, FCV was almost completely inactivated at 200 MPa for 5 min. Oysters separated from their shells under a pressure of 80 MPa for 5min at 40°C. Under these conditions, one to two-log. inactivation of FCV was observed. From these results, it is considered that electrolysis of seawater at 20°C or above is a useful method for post harvest elimination of NV from oysters. High hydrostatic pressure is also effective for inactivation of NV.
We found that, according to the multiplication curve of test strain, DDAC induced bacteriolysis, and was mixed type to suppress both specific multiplication rate and its lag phase. And also, we found that the inhibition ratio at that time was proportional to the square of the concentration of chemical, and the LC50 was 0.7 mg/L and its sterilization effect was excellent compared with the one having one linear alkyl group. At the treatment by the chemical of 50 mg/L for 30 minutes, we could not detect the formation of bleb by electron microscope observation. However, at the treatment by the chemical of 20 mg/L for one over-night, the formation of bleb was observed clearly. From the above result, we think that at first sterilization will occur and consequently, bleb formation will occur.
As you know well, Castella is one of the by-products which were developed by collaboration of eastern civilization and western civilization in the 16th century. We, "Fukusaya", has the history for manufacturing of castilla over 380 years, and this history is just overlapping to the history of the development of castilla. In this opportunity, we wish to introduce the approximate course of history of castilla until today especially the transition of taste as the main theme with introduction of the literatures in domestic and over-seas under our investigation and research for long years.
For the purpose of application of antimicrobial property of the fruit flavonoid to physiologically functional food, we investigated anti-influenza virus activity and its mechanisms of the crude extract from the wild Ribes nigrum L. of Saxifragaceae (Registered Trade Name : Kurokarin) of Heilongjiang in China origin (hereinafter called as "Kurokarin Extract"), and of the anthocyanin group purified from this extract.
1. Anti-Influenza Virus Activity of Kurokarin Extract:
Kurokarin Extract suppressed plaque formation of influenza A virus (IVA) and influenza B virus (IVB) for 50% at the concentration of 3.2μg/ml (dried weight/ml). Furthermore, this extract at the concentration of 10-100μg/ml (pH 2.8) inactivated directly the infectivity of IVA and IVB for over 99.9%, and at even pH 7.2, for 95-99%. On the other hand, the multiplication of IVA and IVB in infected cell was completely inhibited at the concentration of 100μg/ml. And also, the extract at the same concentration inhibited release of IVA and IVB from infected cells remarkably. From these results, it was confirmed that the anti-influenza virus activity of Kurokarin Extract was resulted from the direct inactivation of virus, suppression of virus multiplication in infected cells and inhibition of virus release from the cells.
2. Components of Kurokarin Extract and These Anti-Influenza Virus Activities:
The components of Kurokarin Extract were refined by column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, and identified by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The constituents of obtained fractions were anthocyanins containing 3-O-α-L-rhamunopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl -delphinidin and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl -delphinidin (fraction F') , and containing 3-O-α-L-rhamunopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl- cyanidin and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl Cyanidin (fraction E') as the main component.
Anti-influenza virus activities (IC50) of fraction E' and fraction F' were high value at around 500μg/ml. This anti-influenza virus activity was not resulted from direct inactivation of virus infectivity, but based on inhibition of virus adsorption to the cells by blocking the influenza virus receptor on surface of cells and on suppression of virus release from the infected cells. Fraction E' and fraction F' showed the additive action, suggesting that delphnidin glycoside and cyanidin glycoside have same mechanisms of anti-influenza virus activity.
Cut vegetables are very convenient as no troublesome and no loss by waste. However, compared with the vegetables before cutting, they are perishable and have problem of multiplication of microorganism as it takes long time for distribution or others. To suppress multiplication of microorganism at the manufacturing plants for cut vegetables, they have been applying sterilization of machines and tools by spraying of alcohol, bacteria elimination treatment of fresh vegetables by chlorine type germicide such as sodium hypo-chlorite and shelf life improving treatment by brewed vinegar or food additives.
In this paper, we wish to introduce sanitation control and shelf life improvement at the latest cut vegetables factories by the following 5 items.
①Subjects of cut vegetables factories in sanitation aspect, ②Microorganism from raw vegetables of cut vegetables, ③Contamination of machines and tools, ④Cleaning and sterilization of cut vegetables, ⑤Application of shelf life improvement of cut vegetable.
TOP Salad Vitan Series
The extract from roasted soybean and the extract from roasted rice bran were used in this study. The effects of the extracts on the oxidative stability of lipid in water were investigated. The anti-oxidative activity of the extracts were the same or higher than that of tocopherol in the lipid-suspended water. This study also compared the level of the anti-oxidative activity of the extracts in two different lipid-suspended water : one prepared with ethanol and the other prepared with surface-active agent. The result was that it was higher in the one prepared with ethanol.
The extract from roasted soybean contained 43.7mg/mL polyphenol, and the extract from roasted rice bran contained 63.0mg/mL of the same. However, DPPH-radical quenching activity was shown at low level for both of the extracts. The extracts contained 2.0μg polyphenol as the substance which causes the DPPH-radical quenching activity. We suggested the extracts prevented the oxidation of lipid in water with a mechanism different from that of radical quenching system.
Today, the ratio of processed foods is in a tendency of increasing, and the demand to eating-out, daily dishes or home-meal replacement at convenience store has been increasing and replacing to the eating at home. Furthermore, many incidents and accidents took place in succession, and the interest of consumers to safety of foods has been accelerated. Under this circumstance, it is the important subject to provide safety foods for our food industry. In securing safety at food processing factories, sanitation control and quality control to control microorganism are important subject for us. For the purpose of prevention of the secondary contamination and quality deterioration by pathogen and others such as food poisoning bacterium, food sanitation control by cleaning and bacteria elimination has the important role. In this paper, concerning to the food sanitation control by cleaning and bacteria elimination with microorganism control, we give an explanation of (1) Properties, classification and selection of cleaners and bacteria eliminating agent applicable to the stains or microorganism, (2) Properties and bacteria elimination effect of bacteria eliminating agent "Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride", and our sanitizing agent "Seiketukun" utilizing its properties, (3) Trouble-making apparatuses and equipments at food processing factory and application example of sanitation by "Seiketukun".
The ancient traditional culture in Japan has been taking over through our dietary culture. However, from viewpoint of the recent dietary culture, various issues are raised. We considered the food situation in Japan which has been reducing its ratio of food self-sufficiency in the advanced countries. The transition of the recent food history has been heading in the unexpected direction. In reviewing of importation amount and its content of food, weakening of the agricultural and livestock industries owing to increase in importation has been inducing the decrease in our own food self-sufficiency and holding a warning for the securing food in future.
We reviewed both regulatory system which is basis for securing safety of food additives and the activities of the food additive industry (Japan Food Additives Association) which are to complement the regulatory system. After giving comments on the current topics on food additives, we proposed that every parties concerned to food additives such as food additives manufacturers, foods processors and consumers have to face up to reality of food additives and take their part of responsibility of wholesomeness of food in term of additives. All in all, it will open the communication among concerned parties and, we believe, restore the confidence in food additives.
Baking powder (synthetic baking powder) is food additive which forms gas by chemical reaction at heating with water, and has been applying widely for the purpose of expanding foods or improvement of taste in many fields such as confectionery and bakery.
In this paper, we wish to explain gas formation mechanism, classification, used raw materials of baking powder and role of acids, and introduce the optimum baking powder to be selected for making various required confectionery and bread at the actual applications.
Natural Healthy Food from Ancient Period "Ume (Plum)" According to one theory, high priest of the Goh Dynasty in China visited present Denpoh-cho, Konohana-ku in Osaka at the period of the Emperor Kinmei in Nara Era (about 1500 years before). At that time, he carried plum tree with him as the offering (souvenir) to the Emperor.
We learned that, at this period, people liked plum blossom better than plum berry and pickled plum was taken by them at considerably later period. At that period, they have been taking plum as raw confectionery (fruit?) as well as persimmon, Peach, loquats, apricots and others. We think that they developed the processing method for plum to salting as preservative food with the times. As we can see from the description of picked plum and its effects in the oldest medical book in Japan "Ishinhou" which was wrote by Yoriyasu Tamba in 984 (in the middle period of the Heian Era). We think that plum gave excellent medical benefits at that time when there were very few effective medicines.
In Kishu "Minabe-cho" of Wakayama Prefecture where is the largest production area of plum in Japan, they established the industry-government-academia research project to investigate scientifically the effects of plum which was believed as remarkably effective, and this research has been proceeding. From their result of research, unknown power of plum in medical side was been verifying gradually.
"Plum" which was succeeded from the pioneers and maintained until now. We strongly do hope that the further reputations and attractions will be forwarded to "Plum" which was the magic food from ancient, is king of the healthy foods at present and father of the plain food.
We Japanese have been classified in the race of dietary culture area which have been taking rice as a staple diet from ancient times. However, in accordance with shifting our life style to western style, the consumption of rice has been decreasing, but the consumptions of breads, meats and oils have been increasing. Furthermore, according to the development of polishing technology for rice, we eliminated nutritive components in rice bran, so we are facing the problems of out of balance in taking nutrient. For these reasons, the life-style related diseases, allergy and others has been increasing.
Though husked rice (brown rice) is rich in the nutritive components, it could not be taken so much by general people owing to its poor digestibility. However, recently, it was found that the various functions of enzymes in the brown rice were improved by slight germination (0.5mm-1mm), and its taste was improved in accordance with increase in nutrition components and functional components. So today in the market, packed products of the brown rice after heat sterilization treatment are available. Originated from the development of the germinated brown rice, the germination technologies have been induced to various cereals. We believe that it will be effective for our healthy life and usage of food materials for our future lack of foods to eliminate our resistance to food materials containing crust components.
Wheat was considered to be introduced to China through silk road from Mesopotamia as the origin place pf origin. In this paper, we wish to introduce the history of noodle in China, which was made by processing of wheat, and the process for changing the Sakuhei to vermicelli (somen) or noodle, which was transmitted from China to Japan to, and the priest who has brought noodle processing technology from China. Furthermore, we wish to introduce the history of the noodles such as buckwheat noodle, pasta, Chinese noodle or ready-for-cooking noodle in Japan, and the dietary culture concerning these noodles.
Noodle has been changed variously in its development, and there are many varieties of cooking and eating methods, and also there are some differences in changing of cooking at each province, so dietary culture has spread widely. Likewise, many varieties of its broth and ingredients are available. As there are differences in the taste and color of broth in Osaka and Tokyo, each province developed their own dietary culture. Recently, as industrial museums, 'Home Town of Vermicelli : Ibonoito Museum' or 'Invention Memorial Hall of Instant Ramen' were established, and the places of information dispatch for dietary culture of noodle have been increasing in whole area of Japan.
As the persons who have been handling wheat and buckwheat, we do hope that noodles which have been loved by many people in Japan will act as not only energy resource, but also functional foods for good health and long life.
In salmon processed foods, we have been facing the problems of quality decreasing such as color fade-out at storage and crumbling taste after baking. To suppress such a quality decreasing, we have been engaged in development of antioxidant product. In this paper, we wish to report suppression of crumbling taste by improving meat quality by penetrating seasoning components and others into salmon meat tissue.
In Kyoto, they have many traditional vegetables which were transmitted to the ancient capital 'Kyo' from the ancient times before the Meiji era, and were maintained their specific culture method and seeds until now. Among them, they selected 17 kinds of vegetable which were suitable for the recent dietary and cooking, and have been supplying to whole area of Japan as the authorized vegetables called as 'Kyo-no brand sanpin'. As these vegetables have been maintained as their former style without proceeding any breeding process, in some cases, they contain unknown ingredients which are not contained in the normal vegetables on the present market. Recently, it was found that Mizuna, Shogoin daikon, Fushimi pepper and Manganji pepper contain the ingredients which have antimutagenic properties to suppress carcinogenesis.
According to the recent trend to European style of our life style, our dietary life has been shifting from former style of rice only to European style, and the consumption of bread, noodle, pasta, cookie, cake or other as processed foods from mainly wheat flour has been increasing. Today, wheat flour has been applied to processed foods in some form, and we can not suppose our daily dietary life without wheat flour such as bread, noodle, pasta and others. With reference to bread especially, we think that it is one of the important subjects for us to make clear the history of bread taking custom of Japanese and to understand the properties of wheat flour and bread in enjoying the healthy dietary life for long period. So, in this paper, we wish to introduce the history of bread and consider the difference of dietary culture to rice eating.
In this paper, we observed the influence of freeze pressure generation method of various microorganism suspension, nigorizake (turbid liquor), yeast in local beers, lactic acid bacterium in yoghurt, contaminated bacterium in milk and others on bacteria and yeast by utilizing pressure generation method by freeze of water. In future, if we can develop large capacity vessel which can stand against cooled sealing, we trust that this method may be able to be applied to sterilization of products of physiological activating material, extraction of cell components, penetration of seasoning soup into foods and others.
It was well-known for a long time that roasted products from plant fiber suppressed or reduced the unpleasant odor of animal meat and fish meat. The effective component extracted from this roasted fiber is maltol derivative. However, maltol itself has strong odor, so it can be applied to the specific foods only. And maltol can be applied for the purpose of flavoring only. In this paper, we wish to introduce the odor suppression effect of roasted and extracted essence from plant fiber (rice bran and soybean).
"Echizen Sea Urchin" is appointed as one of the three major delicacies in Japan with "Dried mullet roe" and "Konowata" since ancient times. In this paper, we wish to introduce the manufacturing method by the salting method since ancient times, function, catch amount, eating method and others for ?gEchizen Sea Urchin?h having excellent good taste.
Basically, living organisms have function of protection themselves from foreign enemies, and they form ecological system by making use of its function. As the materials controlling such function, the components from plant are well known and have been applying widely to our human life. Spices (herb, spice) and essential oil components are typical function materials, and have been applied for long years. In 20th century, many chemicals and agents were manufactured at the low cost, and the application of these plant materials were made light of by the basic classical theory concerning the application of these natural functional materials. However, under the circumstance that we are feeling anxiety about application of chemicals and agents today, application of natural functional materials is demanded now strongly.
In purchasing of foods by consumers, more details information for their selection is demanded. With the trend to standardization of specification and standard for promotion of world trade of foods smoothly, in addition to increase in demand to safety for foods, many laws and regulations for indication to foods have been amended one after another. With reference to food additives, we are requested to provide information of not only content of additive, but also its raw materials, manufacturing method, produced country and others. In this paper, we summarize the history concerning the indication method to processed foods for mainly food additives.
In the latter part of 50's of Showa Era, the real Imo Shochu induced explosive boom, and became well-known nationwide famous alcohol beverage rapidly from on of the locally-brewed sakes in South Kyushu area. And in these few years, the real shochu, especially imo shochu and kokuto shochu (brown sugar distilled spirit) came under the spotlight. As the factor of this reason, we can say that we are attracted by its specific taste which we have never experienced before. Furthermore, we think that the superiority in healthy aspect was proved in practice, such as shochu will not induce hangover so much, and the certification that the enzyme which will dissolve thrombus is activated by taking real shochu. In this paper, we wish to introduce the taste of real shochu, especially imo shochu.
If we consider the change in circumstance for foods through the history of food processing industry for 55 years after World War II and satisfaction period to foods, trend to longer life of Japanese, subject for low birthrate and longevity and manufacture in the higher aged society, food manufacture with consideration of necessity of development for various kinds of food for the different ages, health respects by improvement of diet and others are required subjects.
By the change of dietary form according to the change in life style, the demand to processed foods including frozen foods has been expanding. Beside safety, taste such as taste sense and flavor are considered as important factor for foods. In case of meat daily dishes, it is important to understand the property of protein composed in meat to gain good taste, and we are devising at manufacturing of processing foods to induce soft sense of taste. In this paper, we wish to introduce mainly processing method to improve the sense of taste for meat daily dishes.
Food additive industry in China is extremely new field and has been expanding with growth of food industry called as growth industry. Since 1996, food industry has established firm situation as the industry expected remarkable growth in the national economy in China. Today, the annual total production amount of food industry reached 800 billion Yuan. The total production amount of food additive industry is about 3% of that of total food industry, and annual growth rate is 12 to 14%